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Pizarro y la caída del Imperio Inca

Pizarro y la caída del Imperio Inca


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En 1533 EC, el Imperio Inca era el más grande del mundo. Sin embargo, la falta de integración de los pueblos conquistados en ese imperio, combinada con una guerra civil para reclamar el trono inca y una devastadora epidemia de enfermedades traídas por los europeos, significó que los incas estaban listos para la toma. Francisco Pizarro llegó al Perú con una fuerza asombrosamente pequeña de hombres cuyo único interés era el tesoro. Con armas y tácticas superiores, y la valiosa ayuda de los lugareños deseosos de rebelarse, los españoles barrieron a los incas en poco más de una generación. La llegada de los visitantes al Nuevo Mundo y el consiguiente colapso del Imperio Inca fue el mayor desastre humanitario que jamás haya ocurrido en las Américas.

El imperio inca

Los mismos incas llamaron a su imperio Tawantinsuyo (o Tahuantinsuyu) que significa 'Tierra de los Cuatro Cuartos' o 'Las Cuatro Partes Juntas'. Cuzco, la capital, era considerada el ombligo del mundo, e irradiaban carreteras y miradores sagrados (ceques) a cada barrio: Chinchaysuyu (norte), Antisuyu (este), Collasuyu (sur) y Cuntisuyu (oeste). Extendiéndose por el antiguo Ecuador, Perú, el norte de Chile, Bolivia, las tierras altas de Argentina y el sur de Colombia y extendiéndose por 5.500 km (3.400 millas) de norte a sur, apenas 40.000 incas gobernaban un enorme territorio con unos 10 millones de súbditos que hablaban más de 30 idiomas diferentes.

Los incas creían que tenían el derecho divino de gobernar a los pueblos conquistados, ya que en su mitología fueron traídos a la existencia en Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) por el dios sol Inti. Como consecuencia, se consideraban a sí mismos como los pocos elegidos, los 'Hijos del Sol', y el gobernante Inca era el representante y encarnación de Inti en la tierra. En términos prácticos, esto significó que todos los hablantes del idioma inca quechua (o runasimi) obtuvieron un estatus privilegiado, y esta clase noble luego dominó todos los roles políticos, religiosos y administrativos importantes dentro del imperio.

El surgimiento del Imperio Inca había sido espectacularmente rápido. Aunque Cuzco se había convertido en un centro significativo en algún momento al comienzo del Período Intermedio Tardío (1000-1400 EC), el proceso de unificación regional solo comenzó a fines del siglo XIV EC y una conquista significativa en el siglo XV EC. El Imperio aún era joven cuando debía afrontar su mayor desafío.

Pizarro y los conquistadores

Francisco Pizarro y su compañero Diego de Almagro tenían 50 años y medio, provenían de entornos humildes y ninguno había ganado renombre en su España natal. Aventureros y buscadores de tesoros, lideraron un pequeño grupo de aventureros españoles ansiosos por encontrar los tesoros dorados que sus compatriotas habían encontrado en el mundo azteca de México una década antes. Navegando por la costa del Pacífico desde Panamá en dos pequeños barcos mercantes carabela, buscaron en Colombia y la costa ecuatoriana, pero no pudieron encontrar el oro que buscaban tan desesperadamente. Esta era la tercera expedición de este tipo de Pizarro, y parecía su última oportunidad para la fama y la gloria.

Luego, en 1528 EC, un tal Bartolomé Ruiz (el piloto de la expedición) capturó una balsa frente a la costa que estaba llena de tesoros. Después de todo, podría haber algo que valga la pena explorar más profundamente en América del Sur. Pizarro usó el descubrimiento como un medio para asegurar el derecho del rey español Carlos V a ser gobernador de cualquier nuevo territorio descubierto y la Corona obtuvo su habitual quinta parte de cualquier tesoro encontrado. Con una fuerza de 168 hombres, que incluía 138 veteranos, 27 caballos de caballería, artillería y un fraile, un padre Valverde, Pizarro se dirigió a los Andes.

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En 1531 d.C., con un progreso lento y cuidadoso, alcanzó y conquistó Coaque en la costa ecuatoriana y esperó refuerzos. Estos llegaron al año siguiente y aumentaron la fuerza española a 260 hombres de los cuales 62 eran de caballería. La fuerza avanzó por la costa hasta Tumbes, saqueando a medida que avanzaban y sometiendo a los nativos a la espada. Continuando de nuevo, comenzaron a ver los signos reveladores de una civilización próspera: almacenes y carreteras bien construidas. Formaron un nuevo asentamiento en San Miguel (actual Piura), y para fines del año 1532 d.C. Pizarro estaba listo para hacer el primer contacto con los gobernantes de lo que parecía un imperio enorme y rico.

Problemas en el Imperio

Cuando los invasores extranjeros llegaron al Perú, los incas ya estaban acosados ​​por serios problemas internos. Como hemos visto, su imperio masivo era una integración políticamente frágil y laxa de estados conquistados cuya sumisión provenía del dominio militar inca y la toma de rehenes, tanto de personas importantes como de importantes artefactos religiosos, para asegurar un cumplimiento continuo, aunque incómodo, de El dominio de Cuzco. Los impuestos impopulares se extrajeron en forma de bienes o servicios (militares y mano de obra en general), y muchas comunidades fueron reasentadas por la fuerza en otras partes del imperio o tuvieron que dar la bienvenida a nuevas comunidades de personas más leales a sus amos.

Los incas también impusieron su religión a los pueblos conquistados, incluso si permitieron la adoración continua de algunos dioses siempre que se les diera un estatus menor a Inti. Los incas incluso impusieron su propio arte en todo el imperio como una forma de impresionar visualmente exactamente quién era la clase dominante. Hubo algunos beneficios para el gobierno Inca: un suministro de alimentos más regulado, mejores carreteras y comunicaciones, la posibilidad de protección militar Inca y fiestas ocasionales patrocinadas por el estado. Sin embargo, en general, la suerte de un área conquistada era tal que, en muchos casos, cuando un poder rival amenazaba el dominio inca, faltaba algo de lealtad para preservar el imperio. Algunas áreas, especialmente en los territorios del norte, estaban constantemente en rebelión, y una guerra en curso en Ecuador requirió el establecimiento de una segunda capital inca en Quito.

Quizás más significativamente que este malestar, cuando Pizarro llegó a la escena, los incas estaban peleando entre ellos. A la muerte del gobernante Inca Wayna Qhapaq en 1528 EC, dos de sus hijos, Waskar y Atahualpa, lucharon en una dañina guerra civil de seis años por el control del imperio de su padre. Atahualpa finalmente ganó, pero el imperio todavía estaba acosado por facciones que aún no se habían reconciliado por completo con su victoria.

Finalmente, si todos esos factores no fueran suficientes para dar a los españoles una ventaja seria, los incas se vieron entonces afectados por una epidemia de enfermedades europeas, como la viruela, que se había extendido desde Centroamérica incluso más rápido que los propios invasores europeos. Tal enfermedad mató a Wayna Qhapaq en 1528 EC y en algunos lugares un asombroso 65-90% de la población moriría a causa de este enemigo invisible.

Pizarro conoce a Atahualpa

El viernes 15 de noviembre de 1532 EC, los españoles se acercaron al pueblo inca de Cajamarca en las tierras altas del Perú. Pizarro envió un mensaje de que deseaba encontrarse con el rey Inca, disfrutar de los manantiales locales y disfrutar de su reciente victoria sobre Waskar. Atahualpa acordó finalmente conocer a los hombres blancos barbudos, de los que se rumoreaba, que se sabía que habían estado luchando para abrirse camino desde la costa durante algún tiempo. Rodeado con confianza por su ejército de 80.000 efectivos, Atahualpa parece no haber visto ninguna amenaza de una fuerza enemiga tan pequeña, e hizo que Pizarro esperara hasta el día siguiente.

El primer encuentro formal entre Pizarro y Atahualpa involucró algunos discursos, una copa juntos mientras observaban un poco de equitación española, y no mucho más. Ambas partes se fueron con la intención de capturar o matar a la otra parte en la primera oportunidad disponible. Al día siguiente, Pizarro, usando la arquitectura convenientemente laberíntica de la ciudad Inca para su ventaja, puso a sus hombres en una emboscada para esperar la llegada de Atahualpa a la plaza principal. Cuando llegó la tropa real, Pizarro disparó sus pequeños cañones, y luego sus hombres, con armadura, atacaron a caballo. En la batalla que siguió, donde las armas de fuego no coincidían con las lanzas, flechas, hondas y garrotes, 7.000 incas murieron contra cero pérdidas españolas. Atahualpa recibió un golpe en la cabeza y fue capturado vivo.

El rescate y la muerte de Atahualpa

Ya sea para pedir rescate por Pizarro o incluso ofrecer un rescate él mismo, Atahualpa le prometió el regreso seguro a su pueblo si una habitación de 6.2 x 4.8 metros se llenaba con todos los tesoros que los incas podían proporcionar hasta una altura de 2.5 m. Esto se hizo, y la cámara se llenó de objetos de oro, desde joyas hasta ídolos. Luego, la habitación se llenó dos veces de nuevo con objetos de plata. Toda la tarea tomó ocho meses, y el valor actual de los tesoros acumulados habría superado ampliamente los 50 millones de dólares. Mientras tanto, Atahualpa continuó dirigiendo su imperio desde el cautiverio, y Pizarro envió expediciones exploratorias a Cuzco y Pachacamac mientras esperaba refuerzos de Panamá, atraído por el envío de una cantidad de oro para insinuar la riqueza que se ofrecía. Luego, habiendo obtenido su rescate, Pizarro juzgó y ejecutó sumariamente a Atahualpa de todos modos, el 26 de julio de 1533 EC. El rey Inca fue originalmente condenado a muerte por quema en la hoguera, pero después de que el monarca accedió a ser bautizado, esto fue conmutado por la muerte por estrangulamiento.

Algunos de los hombres de Pizarro pensaron que esta era la peor respuesta posible, y Pizarro recibió críticas del rey español por tratar tan mal a un soberano extranjero, pero el astuto líder español había visto cuán subordinados eran los incas a su rey, incluso cuando estaba detenido. cautivo por el enemigo. Como dios viviente, tal vez Pizarro sabía que solo la muerte del rey podría provocar la derrota total de los incas. De hecho, incluso en la muerte, el rey Inca ejerció una influencia sobre su pueblo porque la cabeza cortada de Atahualpa dio a luz a la perdurable leyenda Inkarri. Porque los incas creían que un día a la cabeza le crecería un nuevo cuerpo y su gobernante regresaría, derrotaría a los españoles y restablecería el orden natural de las cosas. Fundamentalmente, el período del cautiverio de Atahualpa había demostrado a los españoles que había facciones profundas en el Imperio Inca y que podían ser explotadas en su propio beneficio.

La Caída del Cuzco

Después de cortarle la cabeza a la serpiente, los españoles se dispusieron a conquistar el Cuzco con sus inmensos tesoros de oro que fueron reportados por Hernando Pizarro luego de su expedición de reconocimiento allí. Después de eso, podrían ocuparse del resto del imperio. La primera batalla fue con tropas leales a Atahualpa cerca de Hatun Xauxa, pero los españoles fueron ayudados por la población local encantada de ver la espalda de los incas. Los españoles recibieron suministros de los almacenes incas locales, y Pizarro estableció allí su nueva capital. La asistencia local y el saqueo de los almacenes incas se convertirían en un patrón familiar que ayudó a Pizarro durante el resto de su conquista.

Los invasores luego derrotaron a un ejército en retirada en Vilcaswaman pero no hicieron todo a su manera e incluso sufrieron una derrota militar cuando una fuerza de avanzada fue atacada por sorpresa en su camino a Cuzco. Sin embargo, al día siguiente, los visitantes del Viejo Mundo reanudaron su imparable marcha y barrieron a todos ante ellos. Se superó una breve resistencia en Cuzco y la ciudad cayó en manos de Pizarro con un gemido el 15 de noviembre de 1533 EC. Los tesoros de la ciudad y las maravillas doradas del templo de Coricancha fueron despiadadamente despojados y derretidos.

El primer intento de Pizarro de instalar un gobernante títere, Thupa Wallpa, el hermano menor de Waskar, no logró restaurar ningún tipo de orden político, y pronto murió de una enfermedad. Se instaló un segundo gobernante títere: Manqo Inka, otro hijo de Wayna Qhapaq. Mientras se aseguraba de que el estado no colapsara desde adentro, Pizarro y sus hombres se fueron para pacificar al resto del imperio y ver qué otros tesoros podían encontrar.

Conquistando el imperio

Los españoles fueron sometidos a una dura prueba en los territorios del norte, donde los ejércitos liderados por Ruminawi y Quizquiz resistieron, pero estos también capitularon de las luchas internas y sus líderes fueron asesinados. La implacable conquista de los europeos no pudo ser respondida. En esto, fueron muy ayudados por el modo de guerra inca, que estaba muy ritualizado. En la guerra desconocían tácticas como el engaño, la emboscada y el subterfugio, al igual que el cambio de táctica en medio de la batalla y el aprovechamiento de las oportunidades de debilidad del enemigo a medida que surgían. Además, los guerreros incas dependían en gran medida de sus oficiales, y si estos individuos conspicuos caían en la batalla, todo un ejército podría colapsar rápidamente en retirada presa del pánico. Estos factores y el armamento superior de los europeos hicieron que los incas tuvieran muy pocas posibilidades de defender un imperio enorme que ya era difícil de manejar. Los incas aprendieron rápidamente a defenderse y lidiar con la caballería, por ejemplo, inundando áreas bajo ataque o luchando en terreno accidentado, pero sus lanzas, hondas y garrotes no podían igualar las balas, ballestas, espadas y armaduras de acero. Los españoles también tenían casi la mitad de la población del antiguo imperio luchando por ellos a medida que resurgían viejas rivalidades y facciones.

Los españoles pronto descubrieron que la vasta extensión geográfica de su nuevo imperio y sus inherentes dificultades de comunicación y control (incluso si sus predecesores habían construido un excelente sistema de carreteras) significaba que enfrentaban los mismos problemas de gestión que los incas. Las rebeliones y las deserciones se extendieron por todas partes, e incluso Manqo Inka se rebeló y formó su propio ejército para intentar ganar el poder real para sí mismo. Cuzco y el nuevo bastión español de Cuidad de Los Reyes (Lima) fueron sitiados por dos enormes ejércitos incas, pero los españoles resistieron hasta que los atacantes tuvieron que retirarse. Los ejércitos incas estaban compuestos en gran parte por agricultores y no podían abandonar su cosecha sin dejar morir de hambre a sus comunidades. El sitio se levantó de nuevo al año siguiente, pero una vez más los españoles resistieron, y cuando mataron a los líderes del ejército en un ataque deliberadamente dirigido, la resistencia al nuevo orden disminuyó. Manqo Inka se vio obligado a huir hacia el sur, donde estableció un enclave inca en Vilcabamba. Él y sus sucesores resistirían durante otras cuatro décadas. Finalmente, en 1572 EC, una fuerza española dirigida por el virrey Toledo capturó al rey inca Thupa Amaru, lo llevó de regreso a Cuzco y lo ejecutó. El último gobernante inca se había ido y con él cualquier esperanza de restaurar su otrora gran imperio.

Conclusión

Atahualpa, luego de la victoria en la guerra con su hermano, había matado a historiadores y destruido los registros del quipu inca en lo que se pretendía que fuera una renovación total, lo que los incas llamaron un pachakuti o "cambio de tiempo y espacio", un evento que cambió la época y que los incas creían que ocurría periódicamente a lo largo de los siglos. Qué irónico entonces, que Atahualpa iba a sufrir un pachakuti él mismo y los nuevos gobernantes también saquearían, quemarían y destruirían todo vestigio de cultura andina que pudieran encontrar. La llegada del Viejo Mundo al Nuevo lo puso patas arriba. Nada volvería a ser lo mismo.

Los españoles, después de décadas de sus propios problemas internos, que incluyeron el asesinato de Pizarro, finalmente establecieron un gobierno colonial estable en 1554 EC. Para los andinos, su forma de vida, que se había remontado milenios a pesar de la interrupción inca, volvería a ser desafiada por la nueva época. Sin embargo, estos fueron los afortunados, ya que en 1570 d.C. el 50% de la población andina precolombina había sido aniquilada. Para aquellas personas comunes y corrientes que sobrevivieron a los estragos de la guerra y las enfermedades, un señor supremo voraz una vez más, ansioso por robar sus riquezas e imponerles una religión extranjera, no tendría tregua.


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Pizarro y la conquista española del Imperio Inca

Francisco Pizarro fue un conquistador en el verdadero sentido de la palabra. Conquistó a los incas, el imperio más grande del hemisferio occidental, con solo unos pocos cientos de hombres y estableció un punto de apoyo español en América del Sur que duraría varios siglos.

Hijo de un soldado español, Pizarro, como Hernán Cortés, no era de ascendencia real. Sin embargo, lo impulsaba el deseo de fama, fortuna y aventura. Como muchos españoles de su época, buscó hacer realidad estos sueños en el Nuevo Mundo.

Pizarro estuvo con Núñez de Balboa durante su expedición de 1513 en Panamá. Se cree que la expedición de Balboa # 8217 es la primera vez que un europeo ve el Océano Pacífico. Mientras estaba en Panamá, Pizarro escuchó muchos rumores sobre un rico imperio en el sur. Estos rumores eran ciertos, por supuesto. El Imperio Inca tenía una riqueza incluso mayor que la del Imperio Azteca de México.

Durante los siguientes 15 años, Pizarro se movió lentamente hacia el sur y ayudó a someter a las tribus nativas. A cada paso, siguió escuchando sobre el rico imperio de los incas. De hecho, Pizarro encontró la ciudad inca de Tumbes (a veces deletreada Tumbez). Esto, junto con las visitas a otras dos ciudades incas de la región, convenció a Pizarro de que necesitaba explorar más al sur y de que necesitaba más hombres.

En 1528, Pizarro navegó a España para obtener el apoyo del rey Carlos V de España para una expedición a gran escala para encontrar y conquistar el enorme imperio del que había oído hablar. Tomó varios nativos, una llama y tesoros de oro del Nuevo Mundo y se los mostró al monarca español. Carlos V accedió a financiar la expedición y nombró a Pizarro gobernador y capitán general de los territorios que pronto conquistaría.

Conquista de los incas

Pizarro sabía que la conquista de los incas no sería fácil. Sin embargo, tuvo la ventaja de conocer las estrategias y tácticas que Cortés usó contra los aztecas, y Pizarro usó muchas de ellas con bastante éxito contra los incas. Cortés se enfrentó a los aztecas menos de 30 años después de la llegada de Colón, cuando España apenas tenía un pie en el Nuevo Mundo. Pizarro tenía un cuerpo de conocimientos mucho más amplio en el que basarse cuando partió de Panamá en 1530 para conquistar a los incas.

Pizarro también tuvo la ventaja de contar con otros conquistadores experimentados junto con él. Entre ellos se encontraban los hermanos de Pizarro, y en 1532, Hernando de Soto (el conquistador que exploró Florida unos años después) se unió a la expedición.

De 1530 a 1532, Pizarro y su expedición exploraron las afueras del Imperio Inca, conquistando y reclutando aliados en el camino. También descubrió que los incas ya estaban librando una guerra. Esto, por supuesto, fue una gran ventaja para Pizarro. Ralentizó la comunicación entre los incas y significó un reclutamiento más fácil de aliados que eran hostiles hacia el gobierno central de los incas.

Quizás el momento decisivo en la conquista de los incas por parte de Pizarro fue la captura del emperador Atahualpa. Al igual que la captura de Moctezuma II por Cortés, la captura de Atahualpa por Pizarro aumentó la confusión entre los incas y ayudó a frenar la respuesta al inevitable ataque al corazón del Imperio Inca.

Pizarro y Atahualpa se conocieron en 1532 en la ciudad de Cajamarca. Pizarro tenía solo unos 180 hombres, pero también tenía la ventaja de armas de fuego, cañones y caballos. Atahualpa tenía miles de guerreros incas con él.

El secretario de Pizarro, Francisco de Xeres, escribió sobre el acercamiento de Atahualpa.


Según Xeres, Pizarro envió a un sacerdote para hablar primero con el emperador inca. El cura Vicente se acercó a Atahualpa con una biblia y le dijo


En efecto, fray Vicente le decía a Atahualpa que la resistencia era inútil. Los españoles creían que, a pesar de las grandes probabilidades, saldrían victoriosos (por medios pacíficos o de otro tipo) porque Dios estaba de su lado.

Xeres informó además que Atahualpa pidió ver la Biblia que llevaba, la abrió y la arrojó diciendo: & # 8220 Sé bien cómo te has comportado en el camino, cómo has tratado a mis jefes, y sacaste la tela de mis almacenes & # 8230 No dejaré este lugar hasta que me lo traigan todo. & # 8221

Vicente luego regresó a Pizarro y le contó lo sucedido. Se produjo el caos & # 8230


Y así fue como capturaron al gran Atahualpa. El emperador inca asumió que los invasores lo matarían si no obtenían lo que querían & # 8212 oro. En parte tenía razón. El oro era una motivación principal para los españoles en el Nuevo Mundo, pero también querían la verdadera medida de la riqueza en su cultura & # 8212land.

Vale la pena mencionar que los incas y Atahualpa probablemente no entendieron el concepto de propiedad de la tierra. En la mayoría de las culturas nativas americanas, tal concepto no existía. Los nativos americanos tenían la creencia de que pertenecían a la tierra, no al revés.

Como creía que todo lo que querían los españoles era oro, Atahualpa hizo una generosa oferta a Pizarro, con la esperanza de que los españoles se fueran.


De manera realista, por supuesto, Pizarro no tenía ninguna intención de dejar ir a Atahualpa, pero no podía rechazar una oferta tan hermosa. Pizarro también debe haber sabido que los incas no se quedarían de brazos cruzados y dejarían que su emperador fuera retenido en cautiverio. Quizás, Pizarro usó a Atahualpa como cebo para atraer a algunos de los imperios que quedaban como altos funcionarios a una pelea. Sea o no este el plan, a Pizarro le llegó la noticia de que los incas estaban planeando un contraataque, y el español aprovechó la oportunidad para acusar a Atahualpa de traición y ejecutarlo.

Entonces el Gobernador, con la concurrencia de los oficiales de Su Majestad, y de los capitanes y personas de experiencia, condenó a muerte a Atahualpa. Su sentencia fue que, por la traición que había cometido, debía morir quemándolo, a menos que se hiciera cristiano. . .

Sacaron a Atahualpa para que lo ejecutaran y, cuando entró en la plaza, dijo que se haría cristiano. El gobernador fue informado y ordenó que se bautizara. La ceremonia estuvo a cargo del muy reverendo P. Fray Vicente de Valverde. El gobernador ordenó entonces que no lo quemaran, sino que lo sujetaran a un poste en el espacio abierto y lo estrangularan. Así se hizo, y se dejó el cuerpo hasta la mañana del día siguiente, cuando los monjes, y el gobernador con los demás españoles, lo trasladaron a la iglesia, donde fue enterrado con mucha solemnidad y con todos los honores que pudieron. ser mostrado. Ese fue el final de este hombre, que había sido tan cruel. Murió con gran entereza y sin mostrar sentimiento alguno. . .

Uno no puede evitar preguntarse si la cuenta de Xeres & # 8217s es confiable. Sin embargo, la sección citada anteriormente se alinea con las prácticas del día. Lea cualquier libro sobre las inquisiciones de la Iglesia en Europa y encontrará sucesos muy similares. Los no cristianos o cristianos que se creían herejes fueron detenidos y se les pidió que se arrepintieran. Dependiendo del presunto delito, si los acusados ​​se arrepintieran, podrían ser ejecutados de todos modos. El castigo para aquellos que no se arrepintieron fue siempre la ejecución por quema. El hecho es que Pizarro probablemente habría estado en su derecho, según los estándares de la época, de haber ejecutado a Atahualpa inmediatamente después de que arrojó la Biblia en su primera reunión.

Sin duda, la captura y ejecución / asesinato de Atahualpa hirió a los incas, pero no disminuyó su determinación. Siguieron luchando, pero su destino estaba sellado. Como los aztecas y un sinnúmero de otras tribus nativas americanas, las enfermedades, la tecnología inferior y la visión del mundo de sus oponentes significaban la aniquilación. Algunas estimaciones afirman que el 90% de los incas murieron solo por enfermedades. Continuaron su lucha contra los españoles con lanzas y hondas, pero estas armas no eran rival para espadas, ballestas y cañones. Además, los españoles creían que era su derecho y su deber conquistar, someter y cristianizar a los incas y a cualquier otra persona con la que se encontraran.

En 1533, la capital inca de Cuzco cayó en manos de los españoles. La conquista continuó luego hacia el sur hasta que España controló todo México, América Central y América del Sur (excepto Brasil y algunas otras regiones pequeñas).

Francisco Pizarro fundó la ciudad de Lima, Perú en 1535. Gobernó la parte sudamericana de España y el imperio del Nuevo Mundo desde Lima hasta su asesinato en 1541 a manos de un conquistador rival y hombres.


Pizarro conquista Perú

Deseoso de hacer sus propios descubrimientos, Pizarro se asoció con su compañero soldado Diego de Almagro. De 1524 a 1525, y luego de 1526 a 1528, navegó con Almagro y un sacerdote, Hernando de Luque, en viajes de descubrimiento y conquista por la costa occidental de América del Sur.

La primera expedición fracasó, pero en 1526, Pizarro llegó al Perú y escuchó historias de un gran gobernante y sus riquezas en las montañas. Regresó para obtener permiso para reclamar la tierra para España.

El rey Carlos de España aceptó la solicitud de Pizarro y le prometió que sería gobernador de las tierras que conquistara. En 1531, Pizarro y su tripulación, incluidos tres de sus medio hermanos & # x2014Gonzalo, Hernando y Juan Pizarro & # x2014, zarparon de Panamá. En noviembre de 1532, Pizarro ingresó a la ciudad de Cajamarca, donde el líder Inca Atahuapla estaba celebrando su victoria sobre su hermano, Hu & # xE1scar, en la Guerra Civil Inca. Pizarro tomó como rehén a Atahuapla. A pesar de haber pagado un gran rescate para salvarle la vida, Atahuapla fue asesinado en 1533. Pizarro luego conquistó Cuzco, otra importante ciudad inca, y fundó la ciudad de Lima, ahora la capital del Perú.


Francisco Pizarro y los incas

Atahuallpa fue el último gobernante del Imperio Inca. En 1532, mientras disfrutaba de las aguas termales en la parte norte de su territorio, el conquistador español Francisco Pizarro ingresó a Cusco, la capital del Imperio Inca, con una fuerza de unos 180 hombres.

Pizzaro se hizo amigo de los aldeanos y organizó una fiesta supuestamente en honor del jefe Inca. Atahuallpa se enteró y regresó a la ciudad con varios miles de soldados desarmados listos para hacer una fiesta. Pero Pizzaro en realidad había preparado una emboscada. Con cañones, armas y caballos, los conquistadores capturaron a Atahuallpa y masacraron a sus hombres.

Al percibir la codicia de los españoles, Atahuallpa se ofreció a llenar una habitación con un tesoro como rescate por su liberación. Pizarro aceptó el trato. De todo el Imperio Inca, se trajeron 24 toneladas de estatuas de oro y plata, joyas y objetos de arte para pagar el rescate.

Lamentablemente, una vez que se entregó el monto total del rescate, los conquistadores ordenaron que Atahuallpa fuera quemado hasta morir de todos modos. Un fraile dominico llamado Vicente de Valverde acompañó al líder inca durante sus últimas horas, instándolo a abandonar sus creencias paganas y convertirse al cristianismo. El fraile le ofreció la opción de ser quemado vivo o muerto por estrangulamiento si se hacía cristiano. Atahuallpa decidió convertirse y, después de ser bautizado, los españoles lo estrangularon hasta la muerte. Esta terrible historia marcó el final oficial del Imperio Inca.

A los pocos años, los templos incas fueron destruidos en Cusco y la Orden Católica de Santo Domingo llegó a la ciudad. Sobre las ruinas incas, construyeron el Convento de Santo Domingo y la primera Iglesia Católica conocida como la Iglesia del Triunfo.

Francisco Pizarro y los incas

Randall actúa como el escritor principal de la serie de televisión Drive Thru History® de ColdWater y el plan de estudios "Adventures" de Drive Thru History®.


Aprende sobre la vida de Francisco Pizarro y su bárbara conquista del imperio Inca.

NARRADOR: En 1532, el ejército español zarpó hacia la costa del Pacífico de América del Sur para explorar su terreno desconocido. El conquistador Francisco Pizarro es el líder de la expedición. Una vez un simple criador de cerdos español, ahora está lleno de aventuras y riquezas en el Nuevo Mundo. Entre su tripulación hay soldados retirados, que como él tienen poco que perder.

Pizarro está en busca de El Dorado, la legendaria ciudad de oro que se rumorea que contiene tesoros de oro inimaginables de un imperio perdido. El barco echa anclas en Tumbes, una ciudad que se encuentra en el norte del Perú actual. Los soldados marchan durante días sin tropezar con resistencia o riquezas.

PROFESOR JOSÉ ANTONIO DEL BUSTO: "Cuando Francisco Pizarro pisó tierra en Tumbes, no tenía idea de que había algo de interés allí. Él y sus soldados no lograron ver la riqueza desmesurada enterrada allí, artefactos de culturas antiguas anteriores a los incas, como la cultura Moche, que había habitado la zona 500 años antes que los Incas. La tumba del Señor de Sipán es uno de los grandes tesoros que los españoles no advirtieron. Naturalmente, los indígenas la mantuvieron en secreto para protegerla de los saqueos ".

NARRADOR: Cuando Pizarro finalmente se encuentra cara a cara con los indígenas, los embosca sin piedad. Los incas están desarmados y conquistarlos resulta ser un juego de niños. El conquistador Pizarro se basa en métodos bárbaros para llevar a cabo su misión. Solo tiene un objetivo en mente: adquirir las riquezas que se pueden obtener aquí. Hijo ilegítimo de un soldado de carrera, el analfabeto Pizarro exige un rescate de los incas y, de hecho, acumula grandes riquezas. La envidia, sin embargo, conduce rápidamente a la insurrección.

DEL BUSTO: "Pizarro se mostró indiferente en lo que respecta a su seguridad y bienestar personal. Sintiéndose invencible, no tomó precauciones y no contó con la protección de los guardaespaldas a su disposición. Sus enemigos lo sabían muy bien y asaltaron el Palacio de Lima y lo mató ".

NARRADOR: Al final, fueron doce de sus propios hombres los que asesinaron a Francisco Pizarro.


Francisco Pizarro atrapa al emperador Inca Atahualpa

El 16 de noviembre de 1532, Francisco Pizarro, el explorador y conquistador español, lanza una trampa al emperador inca Atahualpa. Con menos de 200 hombres contra varios miles, Pizarro atrae a Atahualpa a una fiesta en honor del emperador y luego abre fuego contra los incas desarmados. Los hombres de Pizarro masacran a los incas y capturan a Atahualpa, lo que lo obliga a convertirse al cristianismo antes de finalmente matarlo.

El momento de la conquista de Pizarro & # x2019 fue perfecto. En 1532, el Imperio Inca se vio envuelto en una guerra civil que diezmó a la población y dividió las lealtades del pueblo. Atahualpa, el hijo menor del ex gobernante inca Huayna Capac, acababa de destituir a su medio hermano Huáscar y estaba en medio de la reunificación de su reino cuando Pizarro llegó en 1531, con el respaldo del rey de España y Carlos V. En la capital inca, Pizarro se enteró de la guerra y comenzó a reclutar soldados todavía leales a Huáscar.

Pizarro conoció a Atahualpa en las afueras de Cajamarca, un pequeño pueblo inca escondido en un valle de los Andes. Al enviar a su hermano Hernán como enviado, Pizarro invitó a Atahualpa de regreso a Cajamarca para una fiesta en honor al ascenso al trono de Atahualpa & # x2019s. Aunque tenía cerca de 80,000 soldados con él en las montañas, Atahualpa consintió en asistir a la fiesta con solo 5,000 hombres desarmados. Lo recibió Vicente de Valverde, un fraile que viajaba con Pizarro. Mientras los hombres de Pizarro esperaban, Valverde instó a Atahualpa a convertirse y aceptar a Carlos V como soberano. Atahualpa se negó airadamente, lo que llevó a Valverde a dar la señal para que Pizarro abriera fuego. Atrapados en espacios reducidos, los soldados incas en pánico fueron una presa fácil para los españoles. Los hombres de Pizarro & # x2019 asesinaron a los 5.000 incas en solo una hora. El propio Pizarro sufrió la única herida española: un corte en la mano que sufrió cuando salvó a Atahualpa de la muerte.

Realizing Atahualpa was initially more valuable alive than dead, Pizarro kept the emperor in captivity while he made plans to take over his empire.In response, Atahualpa appealed to his captors’ greed, offering them a room full of gold and silver in exchange for his liberation. Pizarro consented, but after receiving the ransom, Pizarro brought Atahualpa up on charges of stirring up rebellion. By that time, Atahualpa had played his part in pacifying the Incans while Pizarro secured his power, and Pizarro considered him disposable. Atahualpa was to be burned at the stake—the Spanish believed this to be a fitting death for a heathen𠅋ut at the last moment, Valverde offered the emperor clemency if he would convert. Atahualpa submitted, only to be executed by strangulation. The day was August 29, 1533.

Fighting between the Spanish and the Incas would continue well after Atahualpa’s death as Spain consolidated its conquests. Pizarro’s bold victory at Cajamarca, however, effectively marked the end of the Inca Empire and the beginning of the European colonization of South America.


Contenido

  • 1526–1529 – Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro make first contact with the Inca Empire at Tumbes, the northernmost Inca stronghold along the coast
  • C. 1528 – The Inca Emperor Huayna Capac dies from European-introduced smallpox. Death sets off a civil war between his sons: Atahualpa and Huáscar
  • 1528–1529 – Pizarro returns to Spain where he is granted by the Queen of Spain the license to conquer Peru
  • 1531–1532 – Pizarro's third voyage to Peru. Spaniards form a bond with the Natives (Huancas, Chankas, Cañaris and Chachapoyas) who were under the oppression of the Inca Empire, and Pizarro includes them among his troops to face the Incas. Atahualpa is captured by Spanish.
  • 1533 – Atahualpa is executed after he orders Huáscar to be killed De Almagro arrives Pizarro submits Cuzco and installs seventeen-year-old Manco Inca as new Inca Emperor
  • 1535 – Pizarro founds the city of Lima De Almagro leaves for present-day Chile
  • 1536 – Gonzalo Pizarro steals Manco Inca's wife, Cura Olcollo. Manco rebels and surrounds Cuzco. Juan Pizarro is killed, and Inca general Quizo Yupanqui attacks Lima
  • 1537 – Almagro seizes Cuzco from Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro. Rodrigo Orgóñez sacks Vitcos and captures Manco Inca's son, Titu Cusi. Manco escapes and flees to Vilcabamba, which became the capital of the Neo-Inca State
  • 1538 – Hernando Pizarro executes Diego de Almagro
  • 1539 – Gonzalo Pizarro invades and sacks Vilcabamba Manco Inca escapes but Francisco Pizarro executes Manco's wife, Cura Olcollo
  • 1541 – Francisco Pizarro is murdered by Diego de Almagro II and other supporters of De Almagro
  • 1544 – Manco Inca is murdered by supporters of Diego de Almagro. The Inca do not stop their revolt
  • 1572 – Viceroy of Peru, Francisco Toledo, declares war on the Neo-Inca State Vilcabamba is sacked and Túpac Amaru, the last Inca Emperor, is captured and executed in Cuzco. The Neo-Inca capital of Vilcabamba is abandoned the Spanish remove inhabitants and relocate them to the newly established Christian town of San Francisco de la Victoria de Vilcabamba[8] : xiii–xv

The civil war between Atahualpa and Huascar weakened the empire immediately prior to its struggle with the Spanish. Historians are unsure of whether a united Inca Empire could have defeated the Spanish in the long term due to factors such as the high mortality from disease and its related social disruption, and the superior military technology of the conquistadors, who possessed horses, dogs, metal armor, swords, cannons, and primitive, but effective, firearms. [9] Atahualpa appeared to be more popular with the people than his brother, and he was certainly more valued by the army, the core of which was based in the recently conquered northern province of Quito.

At the outset of the conflict, each brother controlled his respective domains, with Atahualpa secure in the north, and Huáscar controlling the capital of Cuzco and the large territory to the south, including the area around Lake Titicaca. This region had supplied large numbers of troops for Huáscar's forces. After a period of diplomatic posturing and jockeying for position, open warfare broke out. Huáscar seemed poised to bring the war to a rapid conclusion, as troops loyal to him took Atahualpa prisoner, while he was attending a festival in the city of Tumibamba. However, Atahualpa quickly escaped and returned to Quitu. There, he was able to amass what is estimated to be at least 30,000 soldiers. While Huáscar managed to muster about the same number of soldiers, they were less experienced.

Atahualpa sent his forces south under the command of two of his leading generals, Challcuchima and Quisquis, who won an uninterrupted series of victories that soon brought them to the very gates of Cuzco. On the first day of the battle for Cuzco, the forces loyal to Huáscar gained an early advantage. However, on the second day, Huáscar personally led an ill-advised "surprise" attack, of which the generals Challcuchima and Quisquis had advanced knowledge. In the ensuing battle, Huáscar was captured, and resistance completely collapsed. The victorious generals sent word north by charqui messenger to Atahualpa, who had moved south from Quite to the royal resort springs outside Cajamarca. The messenger arrived with news of the final victory on the same day that Pizarro and his small band of adventurers, together with some indigenous allies, descended from the Andes into the town of Cajamarca.

Francisco Pizarro and his brothers (Gonzalo, Juan, and Hernando) were attracted by the news of a rich and fabulous kingdom. They had left the then impoverished Extremadura, like many migrants after them. [7] : 136

There lies Peru with its riches
Here, Panama and its poverty.
Choose, each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian.

In 1529, Francisco Pizarro obtained permission from the Spanish Monarchy to conquer the land they called Peru. [7] : 133

According to historian Raúl Porras Barrenechea, Peru is not a Quechuan nor Caribbean word, but Indo-Hispanic or hybrid. Unknown to Pizarro, as he was lobbying for permission to mount an expedition, his proposed enemy was being devastated by the diseases brought to the American continents during earlier Spanish contacts.

When Pizarro arrived in Peru in 1532, he found it vastly different from when he had been there just five years before. Amid the ruins of the city of Tumbes, he tried to piece together the situation before him. From two young local boys whom he had taught how to speak Spanish in order to translate for him, Pizarro learned of the civil war and of the disease that was destroying the Inca Empire. [8]

After four long expeditions, Pizarro established the first Spanish settlement in northern Peru, calling it San Miguel de Piura. [7] : 153–154

When first spotted by the natives, Pizarro and his men were thought to be Viracocha Cuna or "gods". The Natives described Pizarro's men to the Inca. They said that capito was tall with a full beard and was completely wrapped in clothing. The Natives described the men's swords and how they killed sheep with them. The men did not eat human flesh, but rather sheep, lamb, duck, pigeons, and deer, and cooked the meat. Atahualpa was fearful of what the white men were capable of. If they were runa quicachac or "destroyers of peoples," then he should flee. If they were Viracocha Cuna Runa allichac or "gods who are benefactors of the people," then he should not flee, but welcome them. [ cita necesaria ] The messengers went back to Tangarala, and Atahualpa sent Cinquinchara, an Orejon warrior, to the Spanish to serve as an interpreter.

After traveling with the Spanish, Cinquinchara returned to Atahualpa they discussed whether or not the Spanish men were gods. Cinquinchara decided they were men because he saw them eat, drink, dress, and have relations with women. He saw them produce no miracles. Cinquinchara informed Atahualpa that they were small in number, about 170–180 men, and had bound the Native captives with "iron ropes". When Atahualpa asked what to do about the strangers, Cinquinchara said that they should be killed because they were evil thieves who took whatever they wanted, and were supai cuna or "devils". He recommended trapping the men inside of their sleeping quarters and burning them to death. [10]

After his victory and the capture of his brother Huáscar, Atahualpa was fasting in the Inca baths outside Cajamarca. Pizarro and his men reached that city on 15 November 1532.

Pizarro sent Hernando de Soto to the Inca leader's camp. Soto rode to meet Atahualpa on his horse, an animal that Atahualpa had never seen before. With one of his young interpreters, Soto read a prepared speech to Atahualpa telling him that they had come as servants of God to teach them the truth about God's word. [11] He said he was speaking to them so that they might

"lay the foundation of concord, brotherhood, and perpetual peace that should exist between us, so that you may receive us under your protection and hear the divine law from us and all your people may learn and receive it, for it will be the greatest honor, advantage, and salvation to them all."

Additionally, they invited the Incan leader to visit Pizarro at his quarters along the Cajamarca plaza. When De Soto noticed Atahualpa's interest in his horse, he put on a display of "excellent horsemanship" in close proximity. Atahualpa displayed hospitality by serving refreshments. [7] : 166–170 [12]

Atahualpa responded only after Francisco Pizarro's brother, Hernando Pizarro, arrived. He replied with what he had heard from his scouts, saying that Spanish were killing and enslaving countless numbers on the coast. Pizarro denied the report and Atahualpa, with limited information, reluctantly let the matter go. At the end of their meeting, the men agreed to meet the next day at Cajamarca. [8]

The next morning, on 16 November 1532, Pizarro had arranged an ambuscade around the Cajamarca plaza, where they were to meet. At this point, Pizarro had in total 168 men under his command: 106 on foot and 62 on horses. When Atahualpa arrived with about 6,000 unarmed followers, Friar Vincente de Valverde and the interpreter Felipillo met them and proceeded to "expound the doctrines of the true faith" (requerimiento) and seek his tribute as a vassal of King Charles. The unskilled translator likely contributed to problems in communication. The friar offered Atahualpa the Bible as the authority of what he had just stated. Atahualpa stated, "I will be no man's tributary." [7] : 173–177

Pizarro urged attack, starting the Battle of Cajamarca. The battle began with a shot from a cannon and the battle cry "Santiago!" [12] The Spaniards unleashed volleys of gunfire at the vulnerable mass of Incas and surged forward in a concerted action. Pizarro also used cavalry charges against the Inca forces, which stunned them in combination with gunfire. [7] : 177–179 Many of the guns used by the Spaniards were however hard to use in close combat. The effect was devastating, the shocked Incas offered such feeble resistance that the battle has often been labeled a massacre, with the Inca losing 2,000 dead and Spanish having just 1 soldier wounded.

The majority of Atahualpa's troops were in the Cuzco region along with Quisquis and Challcuchima, the two generals he trusted the most. This was a major disadvantage for the Inca. Their undoing also resulted from a lack of self-confidence, and a desire to make public demonstration of fearlessness and godlike command of situation. [12] The main view is that the Inca were eventually defeated due to inferior weapons, 'open battle' tactics, disease, internal unrest, the bold tactics of the Spanish, and the capture of their emperor. While Spanish armour was very effective against most of the Andean weapons, it was not impenetrable to maces, clubs, or slings. [13] [14] Later, most natives adapted in 'guerrilla fashion' by only shooting at the legs of the conquistadors if they happened to be unarmored. [15] However, ensuing hostilities such as the Mixtón Rebellion, Chichimeca War, and Arauco War would require that the conquistadors ally with friendly tribes in these later expeditions.

Though the historical accounts relating to the circumstances vary, the true Spanish motives for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience. The Inca likely did not adequately understand the conquistadors' demands. [16] And, of course, Pizarro knew they did not have the slightest chance against the Inca army unless they captured the Emperor.

By February 1533, Almagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional 150 men with 50 horses. [7] : 186–194

After Atahualpa was captured at the massacre at Cajamarca, he was treated with respect, allowed his wives to join him, and the Spanish soldiers taught him the game of chess. [17] : 215,234 During Atahualpa's captivity, the Spanish, although greatly outnumbered, forced him to order his generals to back down by threatening to kill him if he did not. According to the Spanish envoy's demands, Atahualpa offered to fill a large room with gold and promised twice that amount in silver. While Pizarro ostensibly accepted this offer and allowed the gold to pile up, he had no intention of releasing the Inca he needed Atahualpa's influence over his generals and the people in order to maintain the peace. The treasure began to be delivered from Cuzco on 20 December 1532 and flowed steadily from then on. By 3 May 1533 Pizarro received all the treasure he had requested it was melted, refined, and made into bars. [12] Hernando Pizarro went to gather gold and silver from the temples in Pachacamac in January 1533, and on his return in March, [17] : 237 captured Chalcuchimac in the Jauja Valley. Francisco Pizzaro sent a similar expedition to Cuzco, bringing back many gold plates from the Temple of the Sun.

The question eventually came up of what to do with Atahualpa both Pizarro and Soto were against killing him, but the other Spaniards were loud in their demands for death. False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid. They were told that Atahualpa had ordered secret attacks and his warriors were hidden in the surrounding area. Soto went with a small force to scout for the hidden army, but the trial of Atahualpa was held in his absence. Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in Inca culture and religion.

The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince. Atahualpa agreed to accept baptism to avoid being burned at the stake and in the hopes of one day rejoining his army and killing the Spanish he was baptized as Francisco. On 29 August 1533 Atahualpa was garrotted and died a Christian. He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. His body was taken, probably at his prior request, to its final resting place in Quito. Upon de Soto's return, he was furious he had found no evidence of any secret gathering of Atahualpa's warriors. [12]

Pizarro advanced with his army of 500 Spaniards toward Cuzco, accompanied by Chalcuchimac. The latter was burned alive in the Jauja Valley, accused of secret communication with Quizquiz, and organizing resistance. Manco Inca Yupanqui joined Pizarro after the death of Túpac Huallpa. Pizarro's force entered the heart of the Tawantinsuyu on 15 November 1533. [7] : 191,210,216

Benalcázar, Pizarro's lieutenant and fellow Extremaduran, had already departed from San Miguel with 140 foot soldiers and a few horses on his conquering mission to Ecuador. At the foot of Mount Chimborazo, near the modern city of Riobamba (Ecuador) he met and defeated the forces of the great Inca warrior Rumiñawi with the aid of Cañari tribesmen who served as guides and allies to the conquering Spaniards. Rumiñahui fell back to Quito, and, while in pursuit of the Inca army, Benalcázar was joined by five hundred men led by Guatemalan Governor Pedro de Alvarado. Greedy for gold, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra. Finding Quito empty of its treasures, Alvarado soon joined the combined Spanish force. Alvarado agreed to sell his fleet of twelve ships, his forces, plus arms and ammunition, and returned to Guatemala. [7] : 224–227 [17] : 268–284

After Atahualpa's execution, Pizarro installed Atahualpa's brother, Túpac Huallpa, as a puppet Inca ruler, but he soon died unexpectedly, leaving Manco Inca Yupanqui in power. He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops. Atahualpa's death meant that there was no hostage left to deter these northern armies from attacking the invaders. Led by Atahualpa's generals Rumiñahui, Zope-Zupahua and Quisquis, the native armies were finally defeated, effectively ending any organized rebellion in the north of the empire. [7] : 221–223,226

Manco Inca initially had good relations with Francisco Pizarro and several other Spanish conquistadors. However, in 1535 he was left in Cuzco under the control of Pizarro's brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, who so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled. Under the pretense of recovering a statue of pure gold in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. [7] : 235–237

Manco Inca hoped to use the disagreement between Almagro and Pizarro to his advantage and attempted the recapture of Cuzco starting in April 1536. The siege of Cuzco was waged until the following spring, and during that time Manco's armies managed to wipe out four relief columns sent from Lima, but was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of routing the Spaniards from the city. The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuzco was failing. Manco Inca eventually withdrew to Tambo. [7] : 239–247

Archaeological evidence of the rebellion incident exists. The remains of about 70 men, women, and adolescents were found in the path of a planned expressway near Lima in 2007. Forensic evidence suggests that the natives were killed by European weapons, probably during the uprising in 1536. [18]

After the Spanish regained control of Cuzco, Manco Inca and his armies retreated to the fortress at Ollantaytambo where he, for a time, successfully launched attacks against Pizarro based at Cuzco and even managed to defeat the Spanish in an open battle. [7] : 247–249

When it became clear that defeat was imminent, Manco Inca retreated further to the mountainous region [7] : 259 of Vilcabamba and established the small Neo-Inca State, where Manco Inca and his successors continued to hold some power for several more decades. His sun, Túpac Amaru, was the last Inca. After deadly confrontations, he was murdered by the Spanish in 1572.

In total, the conquest took about forty years to complete. Many Inca attempts to regain the empire had occurred, but none had been successful. Thus the Spanish conquest was achieved through relentless force, and deception, aided by factors like smallpox and a great communication and cultural divide. The Spaniards destroyed much of the Incan culture and introduced the Spanish culture to the native population.

A struggle for power resulted in a long civil war between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro in which Almagro was killed. Almagro's loyal followers and his descendants later avenged his death by killing Pizarro in 1541. This was done inside the palace of Francisco Pizarro in a fight to the death by these assassins, most of which were former soldiers of Diego de Almagro who were stripped of title and belongings after his death. [19]

Despite the war, the Spaniards did not neglect the colonizing process. Spanish royal authority on these territories was consolidated by the creation of an Audiencia Real, a type of appellate court. In January 1535, Lima was founded, from which the political and administrative institutions were to be organized. In 1542, the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of New Castile, that shortly after would be called Viceroyalty of Peru. Nevertheless, the Viceroyalty of Peru was not organized until the arrival of a later Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572. Toledo ended the indigenous Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, executing the Inca Túpac Amaru. He promoted economic development using commercial monopoly and built up the extraction from the silver mines of Potosí, using slavery based on the Inca institution of forced labor for mandatory public service called mita.

The integration of Spanish culture into Peru was carried out not only by Pizarro and his other captains, but also by the many Spanish who also came to Peru to exploit its riches and inhabit its land. These included many different kinds of immigrants such as Spanish merchants, peasants, artisans, and Spanish women. Another element that the Spanish brought with them were African slaves to work alongside captive Incas for use in labor with things such as agriculture and mining for silver. [20] These people all brought with them their own pieces of Spanish culture to integrate into Peruvian society.

The arrival of the Spanish also had an unexpected impact on the land itself, recent research points out that Spanish conquest of the Inca altered Peru's shoreline. [21] Before the Spaniards arrived, inhabitants of the arid northern Peruvian coast clad massive sand dune–like ridges with a -likely- accidental form of “armor”, millions of discarded mollusk shells, which protected the ridges from erosion for nearly 4700 years prior to the Spanish arrival, and produced a vast corrugated landscape that is visible from space. This incidental landscape protection came to a swift end, however, after diseases brought by Spanish colonists decimated the local population and after colonial officials resettled the survivors inland, without humans to create the protective covering, newly formed beach ridges simply eroded and vanished. [22] According to Archaeologist Torben Rick, parts of the northern coast of Peru may look completely natural and pristine, “but if you rewind the clock a couple of millennia, you see that people were actively shaping this land by creating beach ridge systems". [23]

Effects of the conquest on the people of Peru Edit

The long-term effects of the arrival of the Spanish on the population of South America were simply catastrophic. While this was the case for every group of Native-Americans invaded by Europeans during this time period, the Incan population suffered an exceptionally dramatic and rapid decline following contact. It is estimated that parts of the empire, notably the Central Andes, suffered a population decline ratio of 58:1 during the years of 1520–1571. [24]

The single greatest cause of the decimation of native populations was Old World infectious diseases, carried by colonists and conquistadors. As these were new to the natives, they had no acquired immunity and suffered very high rates of death. More died of disease than any army or armed conflict. [25] As the Inca did not have as strong a writing tradition as the Aztec or Maya, it is difficult for historians to estimate population decline or any events after conquest. But, it is sometimes argued, and equally disputed among scholars. that the Inca began to contract these diseases several years before the Spanish appeared in the region, as it was possibly carried to their empire by traders and travelers. The outbreak, argued to be hemorrhagic smallpox, reached the Andes in 1524. While numbers are unavailable, Spanish records indicate that the population was so devastated by disease that they could hardly resist the foreign forces.

Historians differ as to whether the illness of the 1520s was smallpox a minority of scholars claim that the epidemic was due to an indigenous illness called Carrion's disease. In any case, a 1981 study by N. D. Cook the shows that the Andes suffered from three separate population declines during colonization. The first was of 30–50 percent during the first outbreak of smallpox. When a measles outbreak occurred, there was another decline of 25–30 percent. Finally, when smallpox and measles epidemics occurred together, which occurred from 1585 to 1591, a decline of 30–60 percent occurred. Collectively these declines amounted to a decline of 93 percent from the pre-contact population in the Andes region. [26] Mortality was particularly high among children, ensuring that the impact of the epidemics would extend to the next generation. [4]

Beyond the devastation of the local populations by disease, they suffered considerable enslavement, pillaging and destruction from warfare. The Spanish took thousands of women from the local natives to use as servants and concubines. As Pizarro and his men took over portions of South America, they plundered and enslaved countless people. Some local populations entered into vassalage willingly, to defeat the Inca. Native groups such as the Huanca, Cañari, Chanka and Chachapoya fought alongside the Spanish as they opposed Inca rule. The basic policy of the Spanish towards local populations was that voluntary vassalage would yield safety and coexistence, while continued resistance would result in more deaths and destruction. [27]

Another significant effect on the people in South America was the spread of Christianity. As Pizarro and the Spanish subdued the continent and brought it under their control, they forcefully converted many to Christianity, claiming to have educated them in the ways of the "one true religion." [28] [29] With the depopulation of the local populations along with the capitulation of the Inca Empire, the Spanish missionary work after colonization began was able to continue unimpeded. It took just a generation for the entire continent to be under Christian influence. [6]

Peter Shaffer's play The Royal Hunt of the Sun (1964) dramatizes the conquest of the Incas. In the play, Pizarro, Atahualpa, Valverde and other historical figures appear as characters.

The conquest is also used as a starting point for the Matthew Reilly novel templo, where the siege of Cusco is used. Many historical figures are mentioned, especially Pizarro who is mentioned as the pursuer of the protagonist.

The Inca are featured in the third Campaign in Age of Empires 3, having a Lost City hidden in the Andes. They are also in the Multiplayer, found primarily in the areas making up Chile and Argentina.

The conquest is parodied in The Simpsons TV series, in the episode "Lost Verizon", written by John Frink. [30]

Pizarro and his fellow conquistadors feature as antagonists in the 1982 animated serial The Mysterious Cities of Gold.

I wish Your Majesty to understand the motive that moves me to make this statement is the peace of my conscience and because of the guilt I share. For we have destroyed by our evil behaviour such a government as was enjoyed by these natives. They were so free of crime and greed, both men and women, that they could leave gold or silver worth a hundred thousand pesos in their open house. So that when they discovered that we were thieves and men who sought to force their wives and daughters to commit sin with them, they despised us. But now things have come to such a pass in offence of God, owing to the bad example we have set them in all things, that these natives from doing no evil have turned into people who can do no good.. I beg God to pardon me, for I am moved to say this, seeing that I am the last to die of the Conquistadors."

When has it ever happened, either in ancient or modern times, that such amazing exploits have been achieved? Over so many climes, across so many seas, over such distances by land, to subdue the unseen and unknown? Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain? Not even the ancient Greeks and Romans.

When I set out to write for the people of today and of the future, about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made here in Peru, I could not but reflect that I was dealing with the greatest matters one could possibly write about in all of creation as far as secular history goes. Where have men ever seen the things they have seen here? And to think that God should have permitted something so great to remain hidden from the world for so long in history, unknown to men, and then let it be found, discovered and won all in our own time!

The houses are more than two hundred paces in length, and very well built, being surrounded by strong walls, three times the height of a man. The roofs are covered with straw and wood, resting on the walls. The interiors are divided into eight rooms, much better built than any we had seen before. Their walls are of very well cut stones and each lodging is surrounded by its masonry wall with doorways, and has its fountain of water in an open court, conveyed from a distance by pipes, for the supply of the house. En frente de plaza, towards the open country, a stone fortress is connected with it by a staircase leading from the square to the fort. Towards the open country there is another small door, with a narrow staircase, all within the outer wall of the plaza. Above the town, on the mountain side, where the houses commence, there is another fort on a hill, the greater part of which is hewn out of the rock. This is larger than the other, and surrounded by three walls, rising spirally.


How did 168 conquistadors take down the Incan empire?

Pizarro, like all other Europeans, had the distinct advantage of firearms over the indigenous population he sought to subjugate. The Inca hadn't been exposed to gunpowder until the rifles and cannons of the Spaniards were trained on them. And in addition to the actual advantages the gun offered over the spear or the arrow, it also gave the Spaniards a psychological advantage [source: Minnesota State University].

As in Mexico, psychology played a part in the Andes. Montezuma originally mistook Cortés as a returning god Atahualpa, who had assumed power as the Inca emperor, believed Pizarro and his men were demigods. It was through this initial trust that Pizarro was able to gain Atahualpa's confidence. He soon captured the ruler and held him for ransom.

After he was paid, Pizarro retained the ruler rather than release him. He attempted to use him as a puppet dictator, carrying out the Spaniard's will through the Incan emperor's decrees. But Pizarro found this tactic useless Atahualpa was executed at the hands of his captor. The blood of thousands more loyal to the Incan ruler was shed soon after.

The brutality of the Spaniards had become apparent to the Inca. Revolts and battles became normal, and to quash these skirmishes, Pizarro used another Cortés tactic: collusion. The conquistador identified tribes who were enemies of the Inca or unhappy with Inca rule, and established alliances with them.

Superior weaponry, psychological warfare, a perfectly timed arrival and native allies certainly helped Pizarro. But remember the Spaniard arrived in the Andes with fewer than 200 men. Even with these advantages, he wouldn't have been successful had it not been for another weapon, unexpected by both sides.

Biological warfare in the form of smallpox allowed Pizarro to conquer the Inca. Smallpox spread quickly through the Americas prior to Pizarro's arrival. Having lived alongside livestock for millennia gave much of Europe immunity to the worst ravages of smallpox. But the indigenous tribes of the Americas had no such advantage.

Smallpox unexpectedly killed Incan emperor Huayna Cupac, leaving the empire in civil unrest and war. The disease decimated the Incan population, paving the way for Pizarro's paltry troops to conquer a once-vast nation. "So complete was the chaos that Francisco Pizarro was able to seize an empire the size of Spain and Italy combined with a force of 168 men," writes Charles Mann in "1491" [source: Mann].

Ultimately, the diseases the Europeans brought with them did more damage than guns or greed. Within the 130 years following Columbus an estimated 95 percent of the Americas' inhabitants died [source: Mann].

For more information on conquest and other related topics, visit the next page.


Vida temprana

Pizarro was the illegitimate son of Captain Gonzalo Pizarro and Francisca González, a young girl of humble birth. He spent much of his early life in the home of his grandparents. According to legend he was for a time a swineherd, a not unlikely possibility since this was a common occupation of boys in that region. He doubtless participated in local manorial wars and, when these were ended, very probably went to fight in Italy. Certainly in 1502 he went to Hispaniola (modern Haiti and Dominican Republic) with the new governor of the Spanish colony.

Pizarro had little inclination toward the settled life of the colonizer, and in 1510 he enrolled in an expedition of the explorer Alonso de Ojeda to Urabá in Colombia. He appears to have been marked out as a hard, silent, and apparently unambitious man who could be trusted in difficult situations. Three years later, acting as captain, he participated in an expedition led by the explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa that was credited with the European discovery of the Pacific. From 1519 to 1523 he was mayor and magistrate of the newly founded town of Panamá, accumulating a small fortune.


Pizarro massacres 5,000 Incans and takes Incan emperor hostage

On 16 November 1532, Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish explorer and conquistador, springs a trap on the Incan emperor, Atahualpa. With fewer than 200 men against several thousand, Pizarro lures Atahualpa to a feast in the emperor's honour and then opens fire on the unarmed Incans. Pizarro's men massacre the Incans and capture Atahualpa, forcing him to convert to Christianity before eventually killing him. Pizarro's timing for conquest was perfect.

By 1532, the Inca Empire was embroiled in a civil war that had decimated the population and divided the people's loyalties. Atahualpa, the younger son of former Incan ruler Huayna Capac, had just deposed his half-brother Huascar and was in the midst of reuniting his kingdom when Pizarro arrived in 1531, with the endorsement of Spain's King Charles V. On his way to the Incan capital, Pizarro learned of the war and began recruiting soldiers still loyal to Huascar. Pizarro met Atahualpa just outside Cajamarca, a small Incan town tucked into a valley of the Andes. Sending his brother Hernan as an envoy, Pizarro invited Atahualpa back to Cajamarca for a feast in honour of Atahualpa's ascendance to the throne.

Though he had nearly 80,000 soldiers with him in the mountains, Atahualpa consented to attend the feast with only 5,000 unarmed men. He was met by Vicente de Valverde, a friar travelling with Pizarro. While Pizarro's men lay in wait, Valverde urged Atahualpa to convert and accept Charles V as sovereign. Atahualpa angrily refused, prompting Valverde to give the signal for Pizarro to open fire. Trapped in tight quarters, the panicking Incan soldiers made easy prey for the Spanish.

Pizarro's men slaughtered the 5,000 Incans in just an hour. Pizarro himself suffered the only Spanish injury: a cut on his hand sustained as he saved Atahualpa from death. Realizing Atahualpa was initially more valuable alive than dead, Pizarro kept the emperor in captivity while he made plans to take over his empire. In response, Atahualpa appealed to his captors' greed, offering them a room full of gold and silver in exchange for his liberation. Pizarro consented, but after receiving the ransom, Pizarro brought Atahualpa up on charges of stirring up rebellion.

By that time, Atahualpa had played his part in pacifying the Incans while Pizarro secured his power, and Pizarro considered him disposable. Atahualpa was to be burned at the stake – the Spanish believed this to be a fitting death for a heathen – but at the last moment, Valverde offered the emperor clemency if he would convert. Atahualpa submitted, only to be executed by strangulation. The day was 29 August 1533. Fighting between the Spanish and the Incas would continue well after Atahualpa's death as Spain consolidated its conquests. Pizarro's bold victory at Cajamarca, however, effectively marked the end of the Inca Empire and the beginning of the European colonisation of South America.


11c. The Inca Empire: Children of the Sun

When Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro landed in Peru in 1532, he found unimaginable riches. The Inca Empire was in full bloom. The streets may not have been paved with gold — but their temples were.

los Coricancha, or Temple of Gold, boasted an ornamental garden where the clods of earth, maize plants complete with leaves and corn cobs, were fashioned from silver and gold. Nearby grazed a flock of 20 golden llamas and their lambs, watched over by solid gold shepherds. Inca nobles strolled around on sandals with silver soles protecting their feet from the hard streets of Cuzco.

This mummified girl was discovered in 1995 on Mount Ampato in the Andes Mountains of Peru at an altitude of over 20,000 feet. She was sacrificed by Inca priests nearly 500 years ago.

The Inca called their empire Tahuantinsuyu, or Land of the Four Quarters. It stretched 2,500 miles from Quito, Ecuador, to beyond Santiago, Chile. Within its domain were rich coastal settlements, high mountain valleys, rain-drenched tropical forests and the driest of deserts. The Inca controlled perhaps 10 million people, speaking a hundred different tongues. It was the largest empire on earth at the time. Yet when Pizarro executed its last emperor, Atahualpa, the Inca Empire was only 50 years old.

The true history of the Inca is still being written. According to one story, four brothers emerged from Lake Titicaca. During a long journey, all but one disappeared. Manco Capac survived to plunge a golden staff into the ground where the Rios Tullamayo and Huantanay meet. He founded the sacred city of Cuzco.

The Sacred City of Cuzco

Cuzco is nestled in a mountain valley 10,000 feet above sea level. It formed the center of the Inca world. The first emperor, Pachacuti transformed it from a modest village to a great city laid out in the shape of a puma. He also installed Inti, the Sun God, as the Incas’ official patron, building him a wondrous temple.

And he did something else — which may explain the Inca’s sudden rise to power. He expanded the cult of ancestor worship. When a ruler died, his son received all his earthly powers — but none of his earthly possessions. All his land, buildings, and servants went to his panaqa, or other male relatives. The relatives used it to preserve his mummy and sustain his political influence. Dead emperors maintained a living presence.

A new ruler had to create his own income. The only way to do that was to grab new lands, subdue more people, and expand the Empire of the Sun.


From the heights of Machu Picchu, the entire Urabamba Valley in the Andes Mountains can be seen.

How was this done? Life in traditional Andean villages was fragile. One married couple would help another planting or harvesting crops. They would receive help in their own fields in return. The Inca tailored this practice of reciprocity — give-and-take — to their own needs.

Their cities centered on great plazas where they threw vast parties for neighboring chiefs. Festivities continued for days on end, sometimes lasting a month. Dignitaries were fed, and given gifts of gold, jewels, and textiles. Only then would the Inca make their requests for labor, to increase food production, to build irrigation schemes, to terrace hillsides, or to extend the limits of the empire.

Machu Picchu and Empire

The Inca were great builders. They loved stone — almost as much as they revered gold. At magical Machu Picchu, a frontier fortress and a sacred site, a mystic column, the hitching post of the Sun, is carved from the living rock. Another slab is shaped to echo the mountain beyond.


Spanish leader Francisco Pizarro captured and ransomed the last Inca emperor, Atahuallpa, for 24 tons of gold worth $267 million today. After receiving the ransom from the Inca people, the conquistadors strangled Atahuallpa anyway.

Temples and fortifications at Machu Picchu were constructed from vast, pillowy boulders, some weighing 100 tons or more. Constructed without mortar, the joins between them are so tight as to deny a knife-blade entry. A vast labor force was required. There are records of 20 men working on a single stone, chipping away, hoisting and lowering, polishing it with sand, hour-by-hour for an entire year.

A network of highways allowed Inca emperors to control their sprawling empire. One ran down the spine of the Andes, another along the coast. Inca builders could cope with anything the treacherous terrain required — steep paths cut along mountain sides, rope suspension bridges thrown across steep ravines, or treacherous causeways traversing floodplains. Every mile and a half they built way stations as resting points. Bands of official runners raced between them covering 150 miles a day. A message could be sent 1200 miles from Cuzco to Quito in under a week.


The Inca Empire ranged 2,500 miles from Ecuador to southern Chile before its destruction at the hands of Spanish conquistadors in 1532.

Everyone was expected to contribute to the empire. Land was divided in three. One third was worked for the emperor, one third was reserved for the gods, and one third the people kept for themselves. All were required to pay taxes as tribute.

The Inca could not write. Tax collectors and bureaucrats kept track of things with quipu, knotted strings. Varying lengths, colors, knot-types, and positions, enabled them to store enormous quantities of information.

Despite its glory, the Incas was a brittle empire, held together by promises and threats. When Pizarro executed the last emperor, it rapidly collapsed. Catholic priests demanding allegiance to a new Christian god soon replaced the Children of the Sun. As they had for thousands of years, the hardy peoples of the Andes adapted. They took what they must from their new masters, and held onto as many of their old ways as they could.

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